The following is a list of references that could be reviewed on Inidgenous Sports, recreation, fitness or traditional activities. This list is not complete; therefore, please do not hesitate to forward any other interesting references to be included on this list by sending us an email.

The University of Saskatchewan also has an Indigenous Studies Portal that has a great list of references with research listed on Indigenous physical activity, please visit:

2010 Legacies Now. (2008). Aboriginal Youth Sports Challenge. Retrieved from

Aboriginal Sport Circle. (1998). Aboriginal Sport Development: The role of the coaching Development, the North American Indigenous Games, and the Provincial/Territorial Aboriginal Sport Bodies. The Aboriginal Sport Circle.

Baskin, C., Koleszar-Green, R., Hendry, J., Lavallée, L., & Murrin, J. (2008). We pass the talking stick to you: Forming alliances and identities in the academy. Canadian Journal of Native Education. 31(1). 89-106.

Cole. D. (1993) Recreation Practices of the Stoney of Alberta and Mohawks of the Six Nation Confederacy. Journal of Applied Recreation Research, 18(2), 103-114. From

First Nations Health Council, Rosalin Hanna. (2009) Promoting, Developing, and Sustaining Sports, Recreation, and Physical Activity in British Columbia for Aboriginal Youth. Retrieved from

First Nations Health Council, Hanna, Rosalin. Producer. (2009). Adult First Nations Fitness DVD. Retrieved from

First Nations Health Council, Rosalin Hanna, Producer. (2010). Bear Workout. First Nations Fitness DVD for Children. Retrieved from

Hanley, A.J., Harris, S., Gittelsohn, J., Wolever, T., Saksvig, B., & Zinman, B. (2007). Overweight among children and adolescents in a Native Canadian community: prevalence and associated factors. Retrieved from

Hanna, Rosalin. Researcher. (2010). Active Spirit Active History. Book created for First Nations Health Council. Retrieved from

Healthy Aboriginal Network, Hanna, Rosalin. Editor. (2010). Physical Activity Promotion & Gang Prevention Comic Book: “Path of the Warrior”

Henhawk, C. (1993). Recreation development in First Nation communities: A Six Nations perspective. Journal of Applied Recreation Research, 18(2), 82-86. From

Forsyth, J. and Wamsley, K. 2006. “‘Native to Native We’ll Recapture Our Spirits’: The World Indigenous Nations Games and North American Indigenous Games as Cultural Resistance,” International Journal of History of Sport, 23(2), pp. 294-314.

Forsyth, Janice and Kevin Wamsley. 2005. "Symbols Without Substance: Aboriginal Peoples and the Illusions of Olympic Ceremonies." In Kevin Young and Kevin Wamsley, Global Olympics: Historical and Sociological Studies of the Modern Games. Oxford: Elsevier Press. ISBN 0-7623-1181-9

Forsyth, Janice. 2003. "A 'Stepping-Stone' to Something Better?: A Preliminary Examination of the NAIG in Windspeaker, 1990-1997." In Vicky Paraschak and Janice Forsyth (eds.). 2002 North American Indigenous Games Research Symposium. Proceedings. Winnipeg, MB: University of Manitoba, pp. 5-12.

Forsyth, Janice. 2002. "Teepees and Tomahawks: Aboriginal Cultural Representation at the 1976 Olympic Games." In Kevin Wamsley, Robert K. Barney, and Scott G. Martyn (eds.). The Global Nexus Engaged: Past, Present, and Future Interdisciplinary Olympic Studies, Sixth International Symposium for Olympic Research, London, ON: The University of Western Ontario, pp. 71-75. Retrieved from

Forsyth, J. and Paraschak, V. 2006. Aboriginal Sport Research Symposium: Final Report and Proceedings, Ottawa: Sport Canada. Download PDF

Forsyth, Janice and Bruce Miller. 2005. NAIG 2002. The Legacy. Winnipeg, MB: Manitoba Aboriginal Sport and Recreation Association.

Lavallée, L. and Poole, J., (2009). Beyond Recovery: Colonization, Health and Healing for Indigenous People in Canada. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. 8(1). Retrieved from

Lavallée, L. (2009). Practical Application of an Indigenous Research Framework and Indigenous Research Methods: Sharing Circles and Anishnaabe Symbol-Based Reflection. International Journal of Qualitative Methods. 8(1), 21-40. Retrieved on April 28, 2009, from

Lavallée, L. (2008). Balancing the Medicine Wheel through Physical Activity. Journal of Aboriginal Health, 4(1) Retrieved on April 24, 2008 from

Lavallée, L. (2008). Assessing the Impact of Sport Using an Indigenous Research Framework. Sport Information Research Centre. Aboriginal Sport and Fitness Supplement. Competitive submission. Retrieved on March 19, 2009, from

Lavallée, L. (2007). Physical Activity and Healing Through the Medicine Wheel. Pimatisiwin - Journal of Aboriginal and Indigenous Community Health, 5(1), 127-153. Retrieved on July 26, 2007 from

Lavallée, L. & Flint, F. (Dec 1996). The relationship of stress, anxiety, mood state and social support to athletic injury. Journal of Athletic Training, 31(4), 196-199.

Lavallée, L., Green, H., and Carniol, B., (submitted). Bringing Culture into the Academy: Evaluation of Culture Camp for an Indigenous Social Work Degree Program. International Social Work.

Malloy, D., Nilson, R., and Yoshioka, C. (1993). The impact of culture upon the
administrative process in sport and recreation: A Canadian Indian Perspective.
Journal of Applied Recreation Research, 18(2), 115-130.

Miles, R. (2015). Indigenous Long Term Athlete & Participant Development Model. Health & Fitness Journal of Canada. Vol. 8. No. 2.

Mills, D. (Chair) (December 1998). Sport in Canada: Everybody’s Business. Leadership, and Accountability. Standing Committee on Canadian Heritage. Ottawa, ON: Government of Canada.

Paraschak, V., Forsyth, J. and Giles, A. 2006. “Aboriginal Sport and Recreation: Ready to Learn and Lend,” Final report of the workshop hosted at the Canadian National Parks and Recreation Conference and Trade Show, Pre-Conference Session, Edmonton, Alberta, October 12, 2005.

Paraschak, Vicky and Janice Forsyth. 2003. Co-editors. 2002 North American Indigenous Games Research Symposium Proceedings, Winnipeg, MB: University of Manitoba

Reid, D. (1993). Recreation and social development in Ontario First Nation communities. Journal of Applied Recreation Research, (18)2, 87-102.

Sutcliffe, J. (2007). Best Practices – Physical Activity Programs for Aboriginal Youth. Prepared by Sutcliffe Group & Sluth Management Consulting.

Young, T.K., & Katzmarzyk, P.T.. (2007). Physical Activity of Aboriginal People in Canada. Retrieved from